清明节 เทศกาลเช็งเม้ง

清明节 เทศกาลเช็งเม้ง

清明是我国的二十四节气之一。由于二十四节气比较客观地反映了一年四季气温、降
雨、物候等方面的变化,所以古代劳动人民用它安排农事活动。《淮南子?天文训》
云:“春分后十五日,斗指乙,则清明风至。”按《岁时百问》的说法:“万物生长
此时,皆清洁而明净。故谓之清明。”清明一到,气温升高,雨量增多,正是春耕
春种的大好时节。故有“清明前后,点瓜种豆”、“植树造林,莫过清明”的农谚。
可见这个节气与农业生产有着密切的关系。

但是,清明作为节日,与纯粹的节气又有所不同。节气是我国物候变化、时令
顺序的标志,而节日则包含着一定的风俗活动和某种纪念意义。

清明节是我国传统节日,也是最重要的祭祀节日,是祭祖和扫墓的日子。扫墓
俗称上坟,祭祀死者的一种活动。汉族和一些少数民族大多都是在清明节扫墓。

按照旧的习俗,扫墓时,人们要携带酒食果品、纸钱等物品到墓地,将食物供
祭在亲人墓前,再将纸钱焚化,为坟墓培上新土,折几枝嫩绿的新枝插在坟上,然
后叩头行礼祭拜,最后吃掉酒食回家。唐代诗人杜牧的诗《清明》:“清明时节雨
纷纷,路上行人欲断魂。借问酒家何处有?牧童遥指杏花村。”写出了清明节的特
殊气氛。

清明节,又叫踏青节,按阳历来说,它是在每年的4月4日至6日之间,正是春光
明媚草木吐绿的时节,也正是人们春游(古代叫踏青)的好时候,所以古人有清明
踏青,并开展一系列体育活动的的习俗。

直到今天,清明节祭拜祖先,悼念已逝的亲人的习俗仍很盛行。

———————-
清明【qīngmíng】 (Qing1ming2) Pure Brightness (5th solar term); clear and
bright; sober and calm.
我国【wǒguó】 our country.
节气【jiéqì】 a day marking one of the 24 divisions of the solar year in
the traditional Chinese calendar; solar terms.
之一【zhīyī】 one of (sth); one out of a multitude; one (third, quarter,
percent, etc.).
由于【yóuyú】 owing to; thanks to; as a result of; due to;
in virtue of.
比较【bǐjiào】 compare; contrast; fairly; comparatively; relatively;
quite; rather.
客观【kèguān】 objective.
反映【fǎnyìng】 reflect; mirror; report; make known.
一年四季【yīniánsìjì】 throughout (the four seasons of) the year; all the
year round.
气温【qìwēn】 air temperature; atmospheric temperature.
方面【fāngmiàn】 respect; aspect; side; field.
变化【biànhuà】 change; vary.
所以【suǒyǐ】 so; therefore; as a result.
古代【gǔdài】 ancient times; antiquity.
劳动【láodòng】 work; labour; physical labour; manual labour.
人民【rénmín】 the people.
安排【ānpái】 arrange; plan; fix up.
农事【nóngshì】 farm work; farming.
活动【huódòng】 move about, exercise; shaky, unsteady; movable, mobile,
flexible; activity, manoeuvre; use personal influence or irregular means;
behaviour.
淮南【HuáiNán】 Place Name – Area code: 0554, Postcode: 232000 (安徽省).
天文【tiānwén】 astronomy.
十五【shíwǔ】 fifteen.
说法【shuōfa】 way of saying a thing; wording; formulation; statement; version;
argument.
生长【shēngzhǎng】 grow; grow up; be brought up.
此时【cǐshí】 this moment; right now.
清洁【qīngjié】 clean.
明净【míngjìng】 bright and clean; clear and bright.
雨量【yǔliàng】 rainfall.
增多【zēngduō】 grow in number or quantity; increase.
正是【zhèngshì】 is precisely; just about.
春耕【chūngēng】 spring ploughing.
时节【shíjié】 season; time.
明前【míngqián】 a kind of green tea picked before Pure Brightness (, around
April 5).
造林【zàolín】 afforestation.
可见【kějiàn】 it is thus clear (or evident, obvious) that.
这个【zhègè】 this one; this.
农业【nóngyè】 agriculture farming.
生产【shēngchǎn】 produce; manufacture; give birth to a child.
有着【yǒuzháo】 have; possess.
密切【mìqiè】 close; intimate; carefully; intently; closely.
关系【guānxi】 relation; relationship; bearing; impact; significance; concern;
affect; have a bearing on; have to do with; credentials showing membership
in or connection with an organization.
但是【dànshì】 but; yet; still; nevertheless.
作为【zuòwéi】 conduct; deed; action; accomplish; do sth. worthwhile; regard
as; look on as; take for; as.
节日【jiérì】 festival; red-letter day; holiday.
纯粹【chúncuì】 pure; unadulterated.
有所【yǒusuǒ】 to some extent; somewhat.
不同【bùtóng】 not alike; different; distinct.
时令【shílìng】 season.
顺序【shùnxù】 sequence; order; in proper order; in turn.
标志【biāozhì】 sign; mark; symbol; indicate; symbolize.
包含【bāohán】 contain; embody; include.
一定【yīdìng】 fixed; specified; definite; regular; certainly; surely; necessarily;
given; particular; certain; proper; fair; due.
风俗【fēngsú】 custom.
某种【mǒuzhǒng】 some kind of.
纪念【jìniàn】 commemorate; mark; souvenir; keepsake; memento; commemoration
day; anniversary.
意义【yìyì】 meaning; sense; significance.
传统【chuántǒng】 tradition.
重要【zhòngyào】 important; significant; major.
祭祀【jìsì】 offer sacrifices to gods or ancestors.
日子【rìzi】 day; date; time; life; livelihood.
俗称【súchēng】 be commonly referred to as.
上坟【shàngfén】 visit a grave to honour the memory of the dead.
死者【sǐzhě】 the dead; the deceased; the departed.
汉族【hànzú】 the Han nationality, China’s main nationality, distributed
all over the country.
一些【yīxiē】 a number of; certain; some; a few; a little.
少数民族【shǎoshùmínzú】 national minority; minority nationality.
大多【dàduō】 for the most part; mostly.
都是【dōushì】 all are.
按照【ànzhào】 according to; in accordance with; in the light of; on the
basis of.
习俗【xísú】 custom; convention.
人们【rénmén】 people; men; the public.
携带【xiédài】 carry; take along.
酒食【jiǔshí】 food and drink.
果品【guǒpǐn】 fruit.
纸钱【zhǐqián】 paper made to resemble money and burned as an offering to
the dead.
物品【wùpǐn】 article; goods.
墓地【mùdì】 graveyard; burial ground; cemetery.
食物【shíwù】 food; eatables; edibles.
亲人【qīnrén】 one’s parents,spouse,children,etc.; one’s family members;
dear ones; those dear to one.
焚化【fénhuà】 incinerate; cremate.
坟墓【fénmù】 grave; tomb.
然后【ránhòu】 then; after that; afterwards.
叩头【kòutóu】 kowtow.
行礼【xínglǐ】 salute.
最后【zuìhòu】 final; last; ultimate.
回家【huíjiā】 homeward.
唐代【tángdài】 the Tang Dynasty.
诗人【shīrén】 poet.
纷纷【fēnfēn】 one after another; in succession; numerous and confused.
路上【lùshàng】 on the road; on the way; en route.
行人【xíngrén】 pedestrian.
借问【jièwèn】 may I ask.
酒家【jiǔjiā】 (old.) wineshop; restaurant (used in names of restaurants);
(old.) bartender, barkeeper.
何处【héchǔ】 whence; where.
牧童【mùtóng】 shepherd boy; buffalo boy.
特殊【tèshū】 special; particular; peculiar; exceptional.
气氛【qìfēn】 atmosphere.
踏青【tàqīng】 to for a walk in the country in spring (when the grass has
just turned green).
阳历【yánglì】 solar calendar.
每年【měinián】 every year; each year; yearly.
之间【zhījiān】 between; among; inter-; whiles.
春光【chūnguāng】 sights and sounds of spring; spring scenery.
明媚【míngmèi】 bright and beautiful; radiant and enchanting.
春游【chūnyóu】 spring outing.
时候【shíhòu】 (the duration of) time; (a point in) time; moment.
古人【gǔrén】 the ancients; our forefathers.
开展【kāizhǎn】 develop; launch; unfold; open-minded; politically progressive.

一系列【yīxìliè】 a series of.
体育【tǐyù】 physical culture; physical training; sports.

直到【zhídào】 until; up to.
今天【jīntiān】 today; the present; now.
祖先【zǔxiān】 ancestry; ancestors; forbears; forefathers.
悼念【dàoniàn】 mourn; grieve over.
盛行【shèngxíng】 be current (or rife, rampant); be in vogue.

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